Conifers Garden - Online Tree Nursery

Araucaria araucana

Araucaria araucana
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Product Information

Scientific name: Araucaria araucana  (Molina) K.Koch  1873

Synonyms: Abies araucana (Molina) Poir., Abies columbaria (Dum.Cours.) Dum.Cours., Araucaria dombeyi A.Rich., Araucaria imbricata Pav., Columbea imbricata (Pav.) Carrière, Pinus araucana Molina, Pinus columbaria Dum.Cours., Dombeya araucana (Molina) Raeusch., Araucaria chilensis Mirb., Columbea quadrifaria Salisb., Dombeya chilensis Lam.

Common names:  Monkey puzzle, Chile pine, Chilean pine, Pehuén, Piñonero, Pino araucaria, Araucaria de Neuquén, Pino de Neuquén (Spanish)



Tree to 30(-50) m tall, with trunk to 1.5(2.5) m in diameter, smaller in cultivation, becoming free of branches for much of its height. Bark to 15 cm thick, rough and deeply fissured, exfoliating in small chips and plates; inner bark brown; outer bark grey or grey-brown. Crown passing from conical to dome-shaped, with closely spaced tiers of widely spreading, more or less horizontal, slender branches with well spaced, regular coarse branchlets. Branchlets extending out to the sides of the branches, sparsely branched themselves, remaining green for several years, densely branched with and largely hidden by the foliage. Leaves densely, spirally arranged, angled a little forward along the twigs, broadly spearhead-to pointedly egg-shaped, generally flat but a little bowed outward around the midline, slightly narrowed at their points of attachment. Each needle 2.5-3.5(-5) cm long, 15-20(-25) mm wide, with sharp, prickly tip, dark green, persisting about 10-15 years. Stomates parallel to the long axis of the leaf, in numerous, closely spaced, discontinuous lines on both faces. Pollen cones 8-12 cm long, 4-5 cm thick, each pollen scale with 12-20 pollen sacs in two rows. Seed cones standing upright, nearly spherical, (10-)15-20 cm in diameter, brown at maturity, the surface hidden by the free scale tips. Seed scales densely spirally arranged, 4-5 cm long, 1.5-2 cm wide, wedge-shaped, with a narrow neck between the outer face and the swollen, seed-bearing portion and with a triangular, upturned free tip 1.8-2.5(-4) cm long. Seeds 2.5-3.5(-4.5) cm long, narrowly ovoid, red-brown, edible (piñones). Cotyledons remaining underground within the seed shell during germination.

South-central Chile and adjacent Argentina, on either side of the Andes. Commonly forming open pure stands on fertile, well-drained, evenly moist soil with moist air; tolerant of coastal winds and salt; (600-)900-1,500(-1,800) m.


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Conservation Status

Red List Category & Criteria: Endangered

(Araucaria araucana has an actual area of occupancy (AOO) of 392.51 km² which falls within the threshold for Endangered under criterion B2. Within the Andes and the Coastal Cordillera of Chile the population is severely fragmented and there is a continuing decline in its AOO due to a range of debilitating factors including fire, logging and overgrazing)



Farjon, A. (2010). A Handbook of the World's Conifers. Koninklijke Brill, Leiden.

Eckenwalder, J.E. (2009) Conifers of the World: The Complete Reference. Timber Press, Portland.

IUCN Red List of Threatened Species, International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources. Cambridge, UK /Gland, Switzerland


Copyright © Aljos Farjon, James E. Eckenwalder, IUCN, Conifers Garden. All rights reserved.

Product CodeARA9Y89X78

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