Conifers Garden - Online Conifer Nursery


Pinus bhutanica

Pinus bhutanica

Scientific name: Pinus bhutanica A.Grierson, D.G.Long & C.N.Page  1980

Synonyms:Pinus wallichiana subsp. bhutanica (Grierson, D.G.Long & C.N.Page) Businský         

Common names: Bhutan pine, Bhutan white pine



Tree to 25 m tall or more, with trunk to 0.5 m or more in diameter. Bark light grayish brown, flaky, shallowly furrowed at the base of large trees. Crown open, narrowly conical, with slender, wavy, horizontal to drooping branches sparsely clothed with foliage near the tips. Twigs brown, heavily waxy, covered with short, sticky hairs. Buds 6-8 mm long, somewhat resinous. Needles in bundles of five, each needle (12-)15-24(-28) cm long, strongly hanging, lasting 2 years, bright light green on the outer face, strongly whitened with wax over the stomatal bands on the inner faces. Individual needles with an undivided midvein, two resin canals next to the outer face, either touching the epidermis or a little separated from it, and with one (or two) resin canals touching the epidermis of one or both inner faces near the angle where they come together. Sheath (1.8-)2-3 cm long, bright golden brown, soon shed. Pollen cones probably 10-20 mm long at maturity, yellowish brown. Seed cones 12-20 cm long, taperingly cylindrical and a little curved, with 60-80 seed scales, maturing light brown, opening widely to release the seeds and then falling, on a stalk 4.5-6 cm long. Seed scales paddle-shaped, thin and flexible, the exposed portion straight and a little cupped, ending in a narrow diamond-shaped umbo that bends inward a little. Seed body 6-8 mm long, the firmly attached wing about 20 mm long.

Western and eastern Bhutan (hence the scientific and common names) and adjacent Arunachal Pradesh (India) and Xizang (Tibet)(China). Usually mixed with evergreen hardwoods in moist montane forests, though attaining its best development in slightly drier sites; 1,750-2,400 m.


Conservation Status

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern

(From observation of the species in Bhutan, India and Tibet (Xizang) there appears to be no significant decline in area of occupancy nor in population size or structure. Accordingly the species is listed as Least Concern)



Farjon, A. (2010). A Handbook of the World's Conifers. Koninklijke Brill, Leiden.

Eckenwalder, J.E. (2009) Conifers of the World: The Complete Reference. Timber Press, Portland.

IUCN Red List of Threatened Species, International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources. Cambridge, UK /Gland, Switzerland


Copyright © Aljos Farjon, James E. Eckenwalder, IUCN, Conifers Garden. All rights reserved.


Rootstock: Pinus wallichiana

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