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Pinus fenzeliana

Pinus fenzeliana
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Product Information


Scientific name: Pinus fenzeliana  Handel-Mazzetti  1931

Synonyms: Pinus armandii var. fenzeliana (Hand.-Mazz.) Eckenw., Pinus fenzeliana var. fenzeliana, Pinus kwangtungensis Chun ex Tsiang, Pinus parviflora var. fenzeliana (Hand.-Mazz.) C.L.Wu, Pinus parviflora var. kwangtungensis (Chun ex Tsiang) Eckenw., Pinus wangii subsp. kwangtungensis (Chun ex Tsiang) Businský, Pinus wangii var. kwangtungensis (Chun ex Tsiang) Silba, Pinus wangii subsp. varifolia (Nan Li & Y.C.Zhong) Businský

Common names: Hainan white pine, Fenzel's pine (English), Hai nan wu zhen song, Hua nan wu zhen song (Chinese)



Trees to 50 m tall, in many areas only to 20-30 m tall, trunk to 1 m d.b.h. Bark on young trees and branches smooth, thin, becoming scaly and flaking, brown, dark brown or grey-brown on trunks of larger trees. Branches spreading wide, forming broad, umbrella-shaped or domed crowns. Foliage branches slender; young shoots pale brown, rarely glaucous, glabrous or rarely puberulent in grooves, turning greyish brown. Buds ovoid to cylindrical, slightly resinous, cataphylls dark brown. Leaves in fascicles of 5, held by deciduous sheaths of flimsy, brown scales, some leaves may fall independently before the whole bundle falls off the twig, producing fascicles with seemingly fewer than 5 leaves. Leaf length extremely variable at least between populations, 4-18 cm long, leaves spreading or drooping, slender, flexible, the shorter leaves straight or curved, 1-1.5 mm wide, glaucous green, with stomatal lines on the two adaxial surfaces, margins minutely serrulate. Pollen cones in small clusters, short cylindrical. Seed cones variable in size and shape, from short ovoid to long cylindrical, initially erect on stout peduncles, becoming curved down to pendulous, (3-)5-15(-17) cm long, solitary or with 2-3 together. Seed scales soft woody, more or less flexible at base, cuneate to oblong, apophyses rhombic to oblong (at base and apex of cone), curved or more or less straight, not recurved or more commonly recurved near cone base, becoming longitudinally furrowed in mature cones, ripening to yellowish brown or reddish brown, weathering grey-brown. Apex thin or marginally thickened, usually upcurved, umbo terminal, small and obtuse. Seeds obovoid or ellipsoid, 10-15 mm long, wingless when dispersed, or with a variously rudimentary to small wing always shorter than the seed and easily detached.

The epithet honors "Fenzel", who collected the type specimen, but nothing more is known about them; the type specimen has been lost. It might be a reference to Austrian botanist Eduard Fenzl (1808 - 1879).

Vietnam and China: SW Anhui, Guangxi, C and N Guizhou, Hainan, SE Henan, E Hubei, and SE Sichuan; 500-1,800 m.


Conservation Status

Red List Category & Criteria: Near Threatened

Pinus fenzeliana has a very broad species circumscription which includes Pinus kwangtungensis Chun ex Tsiang, Pinus orthophylla Businsky and Pinus eremitana Businsky. See Businský 2004 and 2011 for alternative views.

Pinus fenzeliana has a broad distribution across southern China and northern Vietnam. Declines have been reported in outlying subpopulations in Hainan and across its range in northern Vietnam. The overall extent of this decline is unknown but may be approaching 30%. On this basis it is assessed as Near Threatened.

Subpopulations may be quite extensive (Nan Ling Mountains, Guangdong) or locally restricted (most localities in Vietnam). Overall population trends are unknown although significant declines (under the name of Pinus kwangtungensis) have been reported in some parts of its range such as Vietnam and Hainan.

This species occurs often on steep mountain slopes and rocky ridges, generally above a zone of less steep terrain dominated by evergreen broad-leaved trees. Its altitude range is from (500-)700 m to 1,500(-1,800) m a.s.l. It can form nearly pure stands, but is often associated with other conifers and at the lower range of altitude with angiosperms as well. In Vietnam and some parts of China it is restricted to limestone karst formations.

As a 'soft wood' pine, this species will yield excellent timber for construction, carpentry and perhaps furniture making. Uses are presumably local only, as there are no great quantities of it anywhere.

This species is present in several protected areas in China and in Viet Nam. In Vietnam "Pinus kwangtungensis" is in Group one of the List of Rare and Precious Flora which prohibits exploitation. In China both Pinus fenzeliana and Pinus kwangtungensis have been listed as Vulnerable.


Varieties: -



  • Farjon, A. (2010). A Handbook of the World's Conifers. Koninklijke Brill, Leiden.
  • Eckenwalder, J.E. (2009) Conifers of the World: The Complete Reference. Timber Press, Portland.
  • IUCN Red List of Threatened Species, International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources. Cambridge, UK /Gland, Switzerland

Copyright © Aljos Farjon, James E. Eckenwalder, IUCN, Conifers Garden. All rights reserved.

Product CodePINNTDKX52
Weight1.5 kg
Height20 - 25 cm

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