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Pinus muricata

Pinus muricata
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Product Information

Scientific name: Pinus muricata D.Don  1837

Synonyms: Pinus edgariana Hartw., Pinus remorata H.Mason

Common names: Bishop pine, California swamp pine



Tree to 20(-35) m tall, with trunk to 1(-1.4) m in diameter. Bark dark grayish brown, soon broken up into long vertical ridges divided by deep, dark furrows. Crown broadly dome-shaped, open, with horizontal to sharply rising branches bearing dense tufts of forwardly directed foliage only at the tips. Twigs brown, hairless, rough with scale leaves and their bases. Buds 1-1.5(-2.5) cm long, resinous. Needles in bundles of two (or three), each needle (7-)10-16 cm long, stiff and slightly twisted, lasting 2-3 years, bluish green or dark yellowish green. Pollen cones (5-)10-20 mm long, pale red. Seed cones 5-9 cm long, symmetrical or asymmetrical and egg-shaped, with 75-120 seed scales, green before maturity, ripening orange-brown, persisting and remaining closed many years after maturity and opening after fires, on short, curved stalks 0.5-1 cm long. Seed body 5-7 mm long, very dark, the easily detachable wing 14-20 mm long.

Discontinuous along the Pacific Coast of North America from northern California to northern Baja California (Mexico). Forming pure stands or mixed with other coastal conifers on various sites from dry ridges to bogs; 0-300 m.


Conservation Status

Red List Category & Criteria: Vulnerable

(Although no figures about decline are known, it is more than likely that this is happening due to habitat alteration in connection to fire fighting/ fire prevention measures. Many subpopulations occur near urbanized parts of the coast, where private property is urging for fires to be put out at quickly as possible. Without periodic destruction of the vegetation by (natural) fires, of which the chaparral vegetation is prone, this species will be out-competed. It qualifies for Vulnerable on these grounds and an estimate of its area of occupancy based on a distribution map from herbarium specimen data covering ca. 100 years. An additional threat is posed by changes in precipitation (fog and rainfall) patterns: some dieback has been attributed to recent droughts (Fischer et al. 2009, Baguskas 2010))



Farjon, A. (2010). A Handbook of the World's Conifers. Koninklijke Brill, Leiden.

Eckenwalder, J.E. (2009) Conifers of the World: The Complete Reference. Timber Press, Portland.

IUCN Red List of Threatened Species, International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources. Cambridge, UK /Gland, Switzerland


Copyright © Aljos Farjon, James E. Eckenwalder, IUCN, Conifers Garden. All rights reserved.

Product CodePINMA2506
Weight1.5 kg
Height20 - 30 cm

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