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Pinus sabiniana

Pinus sabiniana
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Product Information

Scientific name: Pinus sabiniana D.Douglas  1832

Common names:Bull pine, Gray pine, Digger pine



Tree to 25(-50) m tall, with trunk to 1.2(-1.5) m in diameter, often forking near the base. Bark dark grayish brown, with irregular, scaly, vertical ridges, separated by shallow, reddish brown furrows. Crown open, conical at first, passing through cylindrical to vase-shaped, with seemingly irregular, upright to horizontal predominantly slender branches sparsely clothed with foliage. Twigs pale bluish tan with a thin, waxy coating, rough with bases of scale leaves, hairless. Buds 10-15 mm long, resinous. Needles in bundles of three, each needle (15-)20-25(-30) cm long, flexible and drooping, lasting 3-4 years, dusty grayish green. Individual needles with numerous prominent lines of stomates on all three faces, and 2-3(-10) resin canals at the corners and scattered around the two-stranded midvein deep inside the leaf tissue. Sheath 20-25 mm long, the lower portion persisting and falling with the bundles. Pollen cones 10-15 mm long, yellow. Seed cones 15-25 cm long, massively egg-shaped, with 90-120 scales, green before maturity, ripening tan to light brown, opening widely to release the seeds, and then persisting 5 or more years, on stout stalks 2-5 cm long. Seed scales diamond-shaped, the exposed face projecting in a pyramid tipped by an umbo in the form of a thick, curved spine. Seed body 20-25 mm long, the easily detachable wing abut 10 mm longer.

Foothills surrounding the Central Valley of northern and central California. Forming pure stands or mixed with oaks and other pines in grassy, open foothill woodlands; (30-)300-1,000(-2,000) m.


Conservation Status

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern

(Pinus sabiniana's area of occupancy is within the threshold for Vulnerable. However, as it is not exploited at present and despite some localized threats from urban expansion, there is no evidence of decline in the global population. As such, it is assessed as Least Concern)



Farjon, A. (2010). A Handbook of the World's Conifers. Koninklijke Brill, Leiden.

Eckenwalder, J.E. (2009) Conifers of the World: The Complete Reference. Timber Press, Portland.

IUCN Red List of Threatened Species, International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources. Cambridge, UK /Gland, Switzerland


Copyright © Aljos Farjon, James E. Eckenwalder, IUCN, Conifers Garden. All rights reserved.

Product CodePINBJ58R27

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