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Abies firma

Abies firma
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Product Information

Scientific name: Abies firma Siebold et Zuccarini  1842

Synonyms: Abies bifida Siebold & Zucc., Abies thunbergii Lindl., Picea firma (Siebold & Zucc.) Gordon, Pinus firma (Siebold & Zucc.) Antoine, Pinus bifida (Siebold & Zucc.) Antoine, Pinus momi (Siebold) Voss

Common names: Momi fir, Japanese fir, Momi (Japanes)



Tree to 40(-50) m tall, with trunk to 1.5(-2) m in diameter. Bark gray, becoming browner, flaky and then furrowed with age. Young branchlets with tiny, dark hairs in the shallow grooves between the leaf bases. Buds 3-5(-10) mm long, sparingly or not resinous. Needles arranged to the sides and angled upward in several rows, (1.5-)2-3.5 cm long, shiny dark green above, the tips sharply forked in young trees, simply notched or even bluntly pointed on old ones. Pollen cones 10-20(-30) mm long, yellowish green. Seed cones elongate egg-shaped, (8-)10-13(-15) cm long, (3-)4-5 cm across, yellowish green when young, maturing grayish green. Seed body 8-10 mm long, the wingless than 1.5 times as long.

Central and southern Honshū (primarily on the Pacific Ocean side of central Honshū), Shikoku, and Kyüshü (Japan). Forming pure stands or more commonly mixed with numerous other conifers in lower montane forests; (50-)300-1,000(-1,600) m. The climate is moist or wet, cool in the north of its range and warm temperate in the south, with annual precipitation above 1,000 mm.


Conservation Status

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern

Although there has undoubtedly been a decrease in Abies firma's area of occupancy over the past two or three generations, this is from a large basis and does not cause current concern for the species. Accordingly it is assessed as Least Concern. Occurs as scattered trees or small groups over much of its range, with larger stands in the remainder. General slight decline in past, but future decline projected as probably not more than 5-10% over a period of 100 years. This species is a constituent of mixed forests (rarely in pure stands on dry sites) with e.g. Fagus crenata, F. japonica, Castanea crenata, Carpinus laxifolia, Quercus spp., Tsuga sieboldii, Pinus parviflora, Pinus densiflora, Pseudotsuga japonica, Abies homolepis, Cryptomeria japonica, Sciadopitys verticillata, Chamaecyparis obtusa, Torreya nucifera and Picea jezoensis ssp. hondoensis. In plantation forestry it is only common in Japan, where old growth stands of this large fir have mostly been logged. Elsewhere, it is only used as an ornamental tree or planted in collections in arboreta and botanic gardens, requiring a climate with mild winters and abundant rainfall. Included in some protected areas as part of wider natural forest protection.



  • Farjon, A. (2010). A Handbook of the World's Conifers. Koninklijke Brill, Leiden.
  • Eckenwalder, J.E. (2009) Conifers of the World: The Complete Reference. Timber Press, Portland.
  • IUCN Red List of Threatened Species, International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources. Cambridge, UK /Gland, Switzerland

Copyright © Aljos Farjon, James E. Eckenwalder, IUCN, Conifers Garden. All rights reserved.

Product CodeABIWTHOC0
Weight1.5 kg
Height15 - 20 cm

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