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Abies holophylla

Abies holophylla
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Product Information

Scientific name: Abies holophylla  Maxim.  1866

Synonyms: Abies holophylla var. aspericorticea Y.Y. Sun, Picea holophylla (Maxim.) Gordon, Pinus holophylla (Maxim.) Parl.

Common names: Manchurian fir, Needle fir, Chos namu (Korean), Shan song (Chinese)



Tree to 40(-50) m tall, with trunk to 1.5 m in diameter. Bark gray, browning and becoming ridged and furrowed with age. Young branchlets hairy in the deep grooves. Buds 4-8 mm long, sparsely resinous or not. Needles arranged straight out to the sides on flower branches but directed upward on high branches bearing seed cones, 2-4.5 long, glossy dark green above, the tips usually sharp-pointed (not notched like its close relatives, hence the scientific name, “entire leaf”). Individual needles straight and stiff, flat or a little plump in cross section with a large resin canal near the center of either side, without or with a few lines of stomates near the tip above and with 9-11 lines in each grayish green stomatal band beneath. Pollen cones 10-15 mm long, reddish yellow. Seed cones cylindrical, (6-)10-12(-14) cm long, (3-)3.5-4.5(-5) cm across, green (or purplish green) when young, maturing light brown. Bracts less than half as long as the densely hairy seed scales and hidden by them. Persistent cone axis narrowly conical or slightly swollen near the base. Seed body 6-8(-10) mm long, the wing up to 1.5 times as long. Cotyledons five or six.

Cheju (Quelpart) Island, Korean Peninsula and nearby northeastern China, and extreme southeastern Russian Far East. Forming pure stands or more commonly mixed with other conifers in boreal and mixed forests in dryish mountain valleys,; 0-800(-1,500) m.


Conservation Status

Red List Category & Criteria: Near Threatened

Unrestricted logging, especially but not only in the Russian Far East has led to a decline over the last three generations. However, the extent of the decline is estimated to be less than 30%. Consequently Abies holophylla is assessed as Near Threatened. A continued decline could result in a change of category at the next assessment. At higher elevations or in the NE of its range it forms pure stands, or more commonly mixed coniferous forests with Pinus koraiensis, especially in the coastal mountains near the Sea of Japan. In other areas it is a constituent of the northern mixed coniferous deciduous forests, with Abies nephrolepis, Picea spp., Larix gmelinii (var. olgensis) and broad-leaved trees, such as Populus spp., Quercus mongolica, Fraxinus mandshurica, Ulmus spp., and Betula ermanii. Loss of habitat following extensive logging would appear to be the greatest threat, especially when forests are subjected to repeated burning after logging. In Europe it was introduced around 1905, but, although perfectly hardy and ornamental, remains an uncommon tree mainly seen in arboreta and botanic gardens of the northern hemisphere's cooler regions. A proportion of the distribution of this species falls within protected areas, but  the larger part of it is outside such reserves.



  • Farjon, A. (2010). A Handbook of the World's Conifers. Koninklijke Brill, Leiden.
  • Eckenwalder, J.E. (2009) Conifers of the World: The Complete Reference. Timber Press, Portland.
  • IUCN Red List of Threatened Species, International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources. Cambridge, UK /Gland, Switzerland

Copyright © Aljos Farjon, James E. Eckenwalder, IUCN, Conifers Garden. All rights reserved.

Product CodeABIAATAV41
Weight1.5 kg
Height15 - 20 cm

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