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Pinus maximartinezii

Pinus maximartinezii
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Product Information

Scientific name:  Pinus maximartinezii  (Rzedowski, 1964)

Common names:Big-cone pinyon, Martinez pinyon (Spanish)



Tree to 10(-20) m tall, with trunk to 0.3(-0.6) m in diameter. Bark reddish brown, thin and smooth at first, becoming gray with age, thickening and cracking into tightly packed polygonal blocks separated by narrow furrows. Crown dome-shaped, with numerous horizontal to upright branches from the base bearing hanging side branches that are sparsely clothed with foliage just at the tips. Twigs reddish brown or grayish with wax, hairless. Buds 4-8 mm long, resinous. Needles in bundles of (three to) five, each needle 7-10(-13) cm long, straight but soft and flexible, lasting 1-2 years, bright green to bluish green on the outer face, the inner faces whitened with wax. Individual needles with lines of stomates on the inner faces and two large resin canals touching the epidermis of the outer face, one on either side of the undivided midvein. Sheath (6-)7-8 mm long, curling back at first and then shed. Pollen cones 8-10 mm long, pale yellowish brown. Seed cones 15-27 cm long, egg-shaped, very stout and heavy, with 60-110 seed scales, green before maturity, ripening light brown to reddish brown, opening widely but releasing the seeds only with difficulty, nearly stalkless. Seed scales diamond-shaped, the exposed portion angled out and back as a thick, broad pyramid ending in a large, bluntly triangular umbo up to 10 mm long. Seed body (20-)22-25(-28) mm long, mostly oblong, though a little wider at the outer end than at the inner, the seed coat very thick and hard, the vestigial wing remnant not separating from the seed scale.

Cerro Piñones at the southern end of the Sierra de Morones near Juchipila, southern Zacatecas (Mexico). Mixed with other trees in open, pine-oak woodland on shallow, rocky soils; 1,600-2,250 m.


Conservation Status

Red List Category & Criteria: Endangered

(Based on current knowledge, both the extent of occurrence (376 km2) and the area of occupancy (35 km2) are within the thresholds for Endangered. Two disjunct locations are known although it is possible that other subpopulations exist in the intervening areas. A recent decline in at least the quality of habitat has been observed in the main subpopulation in Zacatecas due to grazing and erosion. Discrepancies between the published counts for the Sierra de Morones subpopulation (2,000-2,500 mature individuals over 400 ha - Ledig 1999 and 60,548 'individuals' over 3,500 ha - Lara Rodriguez 1997) reflect different sampling strategies. The total size of the population is likely to be more than 10,000 mature individuals. On the basis of this information Pinus maximartinezii is assessed as Endangered under the B criterion)




Farjon, A. (2010). A Handbook of the World's Conifers. Koninklijke Brill, Leiden.

Eckenwalder, J.E. (2009) Conifers of the World: The Complete Reference. Timber Press, Portland.

IUCN Red List of Threatened Species, International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources. Cambridge, UK /Gland, Switzerland


Copyright © Aljos Farjon, James E. Eckenwalder, IUCN, Conifers Garden. All rights reserved.

Product CodePINXEIOZ52
Weight1.5 kg
Height15 - 20 cm

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