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Pinus monticola

Pinus monticola
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Product Information

Scientific name: Pinus monticola D.Douglas ex D.Don  1832

Synonyms:Pinus grozelieri Carrière, Pinus porphyrocarpa A.Murray bis, Pinus strobus subsp. monticola (Douglas ex D.Don) A.E.Murray, Strobus monticola (Douglas ex D.Don) Rydb.

Common names:Western white pine



Tree to 50(-75) m tall, with trunk to 1.5(-3.5) m in diameter. Bark grayish brown when young, becoming reddish brown or yellowish brown and broken up into a checkerboard pattern by regular cracks between four-(or more-) sided blocks. Crown narrowly conical at first, becoming oval to cylindrical, with numerous, regularly spaced, thin, sharply and later gently upswept branches, somewhat sparsely clothed with foliage. Twigs light reddish brown and minutely hairy at first, becoming purplish brown to grayish brown and hairless. Buds 4-10 mm long, slightly resinous. Needles in bundles of five, each needle (4-)5-10 cm long, twisted and straight but flexible, lasting 3-4 years, dark bluish green. Individual needles with stomatal lines confined to the inner faces, an undivided midvein, (one or) two resin canals touching the epidermis of the outer face, and occasionally a third resin canal in the angle between the inner faces. Sheath 10-15(-18) mm long, soon shed. Pollen cones 10-15 mm long, straw-colored. Seed cones 10-25(-35) cm long, taperingly cylindrical and slightly curved, with 90-160 seed scales, yellowish green before maturity, ripening pale, often yellowish, brown, opening widely to release the seeds and then falling, on a thick stalk to 2 cm long. Seed scales egg-shaped, the exposed part somewhat thickened but still a little flexible, with a small triangular umbo at the tip, the lowermost, marrow, sterile scales strongly curled back. Seed body 5-8 mm long, the firmly attached wing 18-26 mm long.

Mountains of western North America (hence the scientific name, Latin for “mountain living”), Pacific mountains and lowlands from central British Columbia to central California and Rocky Mountains from central British Columbia to northeastern Oregon, northern Idaho, and northwestern Montana. Mostly mixed with other conifers on a variety of soils, but generally on gentle, moist slopes; 0-3,000(-3,300) m.


Conservation Status

Red List Category & Criteria: Near Threatened

(Pinus monticola has a very large extent of occurrence and also a very substantial area of occupancy, both beyond the thresholds for a threatened category. Decline overall is difficult to estimate, but there are estimates of substantial reductions in regeneration in at least one major area (from 44% to 5% between 1941 and 1979) due to competition and pine blister rust. Suppression of fires in the forests is still ongoing, although in national parks and wilderness reserves this is no longer a priority in managing these forests. On the other hand, clear-cutting can benefit regeneration of this species, so it may have increased especially in cut-over areas in British Columbia and elsewhere. This means that the population reduction is likely to be below the threshold for listing as Vulnerable under criterion A4ce, if indeed there is an overall reduction, partly in the past, and projected into the future. The species is therefore listed as Near Threatened)



Farjon, A. (2010). A Handbook of the World's Conifers. Koninklijke Brill, Leiden.

Eckenwalder, J.E. (2009) Conifers of the World: The Complete Reference. Timber Press, Portland.

IUCN Red List of Threatened Species, International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources. Cambridge, UK /Gland, Switzerland


Copyright © Aljos Farjon, James E. Eckenwalder, IUCN, Conifers Garden. All rights reserved.


Rootstock: Pinus wallichiana

Product CodePINE6C8818
Weight1.5 kg
Height15 - 20 cm

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